The design process of aircrafts is the engineering process behind the flying vehicles. They have to respond to many factors and manufacturing protocols, but also to physical challenges.
The process is different for commercial or payload vehicles, while fighter jets are the ones that set the trends and improve the technique and science. The ministry of each country has a dedicated section to regulate the requirements for each class of air vehicle.
One of the most important aspects in designing a new aircraft is the carbon emission. Many environmental scientists have raised awareness on the air and noise pollution. Noise policies are now specifically designed to regulate the airports around congested and polluted cities. Since 1981, air emissions is controlled by ICAO. They also impose the use of recycled materials on the manufacturing of new vehicles, in order to reduce the environmental impact of aircrafts.
The International Civil Aviation Organisation sets the standards for the national authorities. The aircraft manufacturers have to meet all these standards, to operate within the set limits and to provide maintenance and support through the whole life span of an aircraft. These can be private aircraft owners, air forces or cargo and passenger airlines. They also have to respect some usage regulations, specified by the manufactures, in order to be able to keep their right to fly.
The biggest concern in the manufacturing process is the safety to crashes. Even with the highest attention, accidents occurs either by human error, natural hazards, such as bird strikes, hail or thunderstorm, atmospheric conditions of the specific altitude, fuel tanks or high speed.
Due to the existence of many threaths, the biggest concern is around the protection of the cargo, the passengers and the pilots. Many fuselage tests are being conducted before a product is released. They can check the conditions of nose impact, lateral collisions or fuselage fractures.
This is the reason the interior of the cabin is designed to protect its passengers with oxygen masks, safety belts, lifejacks, luminous floor straps and emergency doors. Some aircraft are designed with the scenario of water landing.